The root of Adams is the Hebrew Adam from the Bible, the first man. The name appeared in the Domesday Book and was popularized by the pageants and plays that were such a feature of medieval life. Many who played the role of Adam may have ended up being called Adam or Adams.
The Adams surname also appears in one form or another in most of the countries of Europe. Name variants here have included:
|Czech - Adamik
||Hungary - Adam
||Poland - Adamiak
|Greece - Adamides
||Italy - D'Adamo
||Spain - Adanez
The Adams name has been particularly prevalent in
NW Germany and Holland. German Adams have formed a significant
part of the Adams immigration to America.
Select Adams Resources on The Internet
- Adams Genealogies. The family name Adams - in 19th century Adams genealogy books.
- The Adams Family of Potters. Adams potters in Staffordshire.
- Adams of Adamsrow. Adam/Adams family from Midlothian in Scotland.
- Adams-McKain Home Page. Descendants of Robert Adams from 1635.
- The Adams Family Tree. Adams in Massachusetts.
- The Adams Family. The Adams of Western Australia.
England. The earliest presence of Adams as a surname was in Staffordshire and in the Welsh border counties. In each case, you can almost see the transition from forename to surname.
Staffordshire Among the knights who accompanied William the Conqueror in 1066 was one Adam de Auldyhley (later Audley) who was granted lands in north Staffordshire. William Adam was recorded as an Audley tenant in Tunstall in 1307. Adams then appeared as a name later in the century there and in Burslem.
It was from monks nearby that the Adams apparently learnt their pottery craft. They became so celebrated as potters that the family crest, a boar's head, was used by the Stoke authorities as the town emblem. The Adams' pioneered the use of salt glazes; in the 18th century, William Adams was generally acknowledged as one of the master potters of his time.
There were other Adams families as well in Staffordshire, starting perhaps with William Adams in the 1440's at Longdon near Lichfield. Another William Adams was a benefactor to the town of Newport in the 1650's; while Thomas Adams set off for London as a draper and became rich on his trade. He backed the King during the Civil War (loaning him money to help his cause), survived the Commonwealth, and came back into favor with the Restoration. Meanwhile, the Adams presence in Staffordshire has been and continues to be strong (where it is today the eighth most common surname).
On the Welsh borders, the patronymical "ap" style, as in William ap Adam, can be traced from the 1100's. Lord John ap Adam commanded these borders in the early 1300's as Lord of the Marches. He owned extensive estates and his name can still be found on a stained window in Tidenham church.
SW England It was thought for a long time that the Henry Adams from Barton St. David in Somerset and an early emigrant to America was a descendant of this line. This connection was later found to have been the result of a 19th century forgery. It might still apply to the Adams family which settled at Bowden near Dartmouth in Devon. Whatever their lineage, Adams have been and remain numerous in Devon. Prominent among them was George Adams, a British army general in the mid 19th century.
London Increasingly, Adamses were to be found in and around London. The Adams name in Shoreditch marriage records can be traced from the late 1500's. A folk hero in Clerkenwell at the time of Charles II was Jack Adams, sometimes called a simpleton and otherwise a fortune teller and astrologer. For years after, his home patch of Clerkenwell Green was known as Jack Adams' parish. Early registers show a number of Adams' craftsmen and tradesmen in the capital. The Adams population in London more than doubled over the course of the 19th century.
Scotland. The Adam surname is also old in Scotland. Duncan Adam, son of Alexander Adam, was an important in Scottish politics at the time of Robert Bruce. Their family held sway for many generations. However, the Scots Adam remained resolutely Adam and they only appeared to pick up an extra "s" on their travels (although one family in Midlothian, the Adam family of Adamsrow, did become Adams in the mid 19th century).
Ireland. The MacAdam name can be found in Mayo and in Armagh from separate MacAdam septs. But MacAdam rarely contracted to Adams. Instead, Adams, mainly to be found in County Down, seems to have been an anglicized version of older Norse names Aidy and Eadie. These Irish Adams were augmented by Scots Irish Adams who had settled in Ulster such as the Adams family in Cootehill, county Cavan.
America. Adams came to New England and also to Virginia and Maryland.
New England There were a number of early Adams arrivals into Massachusetts in the 1630's, of whom Henry, who settled in Braintree, and Robert, in Newbury, have been the most tracked. Henry Adams' descendants included:
American patriot at the time of the Boston Tea Party,
- and John
Quincy Adams, the second and sixth American Presidents.
Also in the Henry Adams line was Jonas Adams, a captain in the Revolutionary War, who in 1794 moved with this family to Andover, Vermont where he farmed and helped build the local school. His descendants included:
- Alvin Adams, born there in 1804 but an orphan eight years later, who was the founder of Adams and Company in 1840 - a forerunner to Adams Express, one of the first companies to act as a carrier for express shipments by rail in America.
- Austin Adams who migrated west with his wife Mary to Dubuque, Iowa in 1854. Their home in Dubuque became an avant-garde salon for intellectuals of the period. Austin was a prominent Iowa judge, Mary one of the earliest and most enthusiastic advocates of the women’s suffragette movement.
- and Charles Adams, a colonel in the Civil War, who also headed west with his family, in this case to Missouri, in 1867. He started a creamery there and it was said that he made the finest butter in the state.
Virginia and Maryland The Adams presence in Virginia and Maryland became noticeable as the 1700's proceeded. Joel Adams was a plantation owner who moved to Richland County in South Carolina in the 1780's.
Perhaps the most interesting family was that of John Adams who was a planter in Fauquier County (his plantation house still stands). One of his descendants, believing that slavery was wrong, set his slaves free and went off to seek his fortune in a state that did not permit slavery. That state was Ohio and George Adams started a mill there in an area near Dresden. He later built a large mansion for himself, Prospect House, which was used as a transit point for runaway slaves on the underground railway. The house was said to be haunted. The story goes that a bounty hunter looking for slaves was hanged in one of the rooms.
Many of these Adams immigrants were Scots Irish rather than the English that had come to Massachusetts. Being more rugged in character, they were among the early pioneers who pushed forward into Kentucky:
Adams, a trapper and trader, moved onwards to Texas and his descendants
- and Elias Adams, born in Kentucky, arrived by oxen and covered wagon in Salt Lake valley in 1850. After building a log cabin for his family near Layton, he soon realized the importance of water in this arid environment. Two years later, he and his sons had completed a dam to trap the waters from a nearby canyon (now named the Adams Canyon after him). He is commemorated as one of the pioneers of Utah.
An Adams family had been one of the first free families in Maryland during the colonial period. Curiously enough, the first written statement by an African American Adams was that of Robert Adams who was captured by Barbary pirates off the coast of North Africa in 1816.
After emancipation, we find two pioneer black educators, Lewis Adams an ex-slave who helped found Tuskegee University in Alabama and Charles Adams who studied at this school and brought black education to Louisiana.
Clarence Adams grew up in Memphis, Tennessee in the 1930's when racial prejudice was still strong. He joined the army and spent twelve years as a prisoner of war in China after the Korean war. His book, An American Dream, recounts his life history.
South Africa. In 1836, an American Baptist church sent three missionaries to what was then Zululand. One of these men was Newton Adams. Adams mission school, now Adams College, was named after him. Francis Adams arrived from London in 1865 and started a small bookshop in Durban. The business expanded over the years and has remained family-run.
Some later Adams in South Africa were of Indian stock:
- Albert Adams, an
artist in exile during the apartheid years;
- and Farid Ahmed Adams, a
political activist imprisoned and banned at that time.
Australia. The earliest Adams arrivals were convicts. Later came settlers such as:
and Sarah Adams from Dorset who arrived on the David Malcolm in 1849.
William found work in the gold mining town of Castlemaine.
Adams who tried gold mining for a while but later drifted to Sydney
he first became a publican and then started his hugely successful
- and Herbert Adams who brought his baking skills from Somerset to
Melbourne and opened a chain of bakeries (which later
New Zealand. William and Prudence Adams from Devon were among the first English settlers (on the Amelia Thompson in 1841). Five years later, another William, from Northern Ireland, came with the British troops. He was the first white settler in Masterton near Wellington. Bill Adams arrived in the 1920's. Amazingly, although clinically blind, he became one of the best wrestlers in New Zealand history.
Select Adams Miscellany
If you would like to read more, click on the miscellany page for
further stories and accounts:
Select Adams Names
Will Adams, a pilot from Kent, was the first Englishman to set foot in Japan in 1600 after his ship had capsized. In Japan, he was known as Anjin-sama.
William Adams was one of the master English potters of the 18th century.
Samuel Adams was an American patriot who played a leading part in the Boston Tea Party (and after whom an American beer is named).
John Adams was the second American President.
John Quincy Adams was the sixth American President.
Grizzly Adams was an early American hunter in the West.
Douglas Adams was the sci-fi author of The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy series.
Gerry Adams is the President of Sinn Fein in Northern Ireland.
Select Adams Today
- 116,000 in the UK (most numerous in London)
- 158,000 in America (most numerous in Texas).
- 77,000 elsewhere (most
PS. You might want to check out the surnames page on this website. It covers surname genealogy in this and companion websites for more than 800 surnames.
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